Interpreting Modalities



Consecutive Interpreting

Consecutive interpreting is so named because it involves “consecutive” turn-taking between the parties and the interpreter. This modality offers several advantages and is the standard for most interpreted interactions. The primary advantage is clarity. Since, only one party speaks at a time it, all parties can more easily remain on the same page. Consecutive interpreting also facilitates encounters that require equal input from both sides of a language barrier. 

Note some examples of encounters in which the consecutive mode would be used: Depositions/EUOs, IMEs, Mediations

Simultaneous Interpreting

As the name implies, Simultaneous Interpreting involves the interpreter and the primary speaker(s) talking in a relatively uninterrupted manner. The interpreter renders an interpretation in real-time. Some settings may call for the use of special audio equipment (listening device for parties receiving an interpretation and microphone for the interpreter) or chuchotage, in which the interpreter simply renders the interpretation in a low, whispering voice to the party receiving the interpretation. The chuchotage method may at times benefit from the use of headphones for the interpreter.

The primary advantage of Simultaneous interpreting is time-efficiency. Since there is no consecutive turn-taking or pausing for utterances to be rendered. Simultaneous is used in situations where communication is exclusively (or primarily) one-way. 

Note some common examples: Conferences, Non-participatory Courtroom Proceedings, Speeches


  • Appointments are typically charged at a two-hour minimum with hourly rate determined by appointment type and target language. Additional time exceeding the minimum will be billed in one-hour increments.

  • For longer appointments, special discounted half-day and full-day rates can be provided.

  • Appointments canceled within 24 hours of the requested start time will be charged at the minimum rate.

Key Terminology:

  • Utterance– A renderable (translatable) unit of speech (from one word to several sentences). It is part of the interpreter’s job to manage the length of utterances, in order to maximize accuracy.

  • IME– An Independent Medical Examination to help answer specific legal or administrative questions related to a variety of situations. 

  • Deposition/EUO– A sworn, out-of-court oral testimony of a witness that may be reduced to a written transcript for later use in court or for discovery purposes.

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